Characteristics of a Pacta sunt Servanda contract – “Agreements must be respected” To be accepted, the essential condition for acceptance is that the parties have participated, from a subjective point of view, in conduct that has manifested their consent. According to this contractual theory of encounter, a party could oppose a right of infringement by demonstrating that it did not intend to be bound by the agreement only if, subjectively, it intended to do so. This is not satisfactory because one party does not have the opportunity to know the undisclosed intentions of another party. A party may act only on the basis of what the other party objectively discloses (Lucy V Zehmer, 196 Va 493 84 P.E. 2d 516) as its intention. Therefore, it is not necessary to actually meet the heads. Indeed, it has been argued that the idea of “meeting minds” is a totally modern error: the judges of the nineteenth century The “consensus ad idem”, which modern teachers have mistakenly translated as “meeting of the mind”, but which actually means “approval of the same”.  7 (3) Must be sure A vague offer cannot be accepted Loftus v Roberts (1902) – “Salary to be arranged” Scammel v Ousten (1941) – does not guarantee the terms of the agreement 8An agreement to conclude an agreement or subsequent negotiation does not constitute a valid contract. It will not be valid from the beginning (none/exists from the beginning): Walford v Miles (1992) Gibson v Manchester City Council (1979) A promise or action by a supplier that indicates that it is willing to be subject to the conditions contained in an offer. Similarly, the recipient`s confirmation that binds the beneficiary to the conditions of a project.
According to the Uniform Commercial Code (UCC) Sec. 2-207 (1), a declaration of final acceptance or written confirmation of an informal agreement may constitute a valid acceptance, even if it contains conditions that supplement or differ from the offer or informal agreement. Additional or derogating conditions shall be treated as proposals to supplement the contract in accordance with paragraphs 2 to 207 of this section. Between traders, such conditions become the subject of the contract, unless Treitel defines an offer as “the expression of the contractual will under certain conditions that are made for the purpose of making it mandatory as soon as it is accepted by the person to whom it is addressed”, the “tenderer”.  A tender is a statement of the conditions to which the tenderer is prepared to be bound. The contractual objective is to be bound by a contract with certain conditions and certain conditions that are communicated to the recipient. An invitation to treatment is not an offer, but an indication of a person`s willingness to negotiate a contract. It is a pre-offered communication. In the British case of Harvey v. Facey, an indication from the owner of a property indicating, for example, that he or she might be interested in selling at a certain price, was seen as an invitation to treatment. Similarly, in the case of Gibson vs. Manchester City Council, the words “may be prepared to sell” were considered a price communication and were therefore not considered a full-fledged offer, although in another case the same policy change took place (Manchester City Council underwent a change in political control and suspended the sale of communal houses to its tenants) Storer v.
Manchester City Council,  The court decided that a contract had been concluded by the tenant signing and returning the contract of sale, as the language of the contract was sufficiently explicit and the signature on behalf of the Council was merely a formality. Invitation statements are only used to collect offers from people and are not intended to be directly binding. Courts tend to take a consistent approach to identifying invitations to process versus offering and accepting joint transactions. . . .