In December 2018, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) ruled that the UK could unilaterally revoke its withdrawal notice as long as it was still a member and had not reached a withdrawal agreement. The decision should be “clear and unconditional” and “follow a democratic process.”  If the UK were to withdraw its notification, it would remain a member of the EU under the current accession conditions. The case was opened by Scottish politicians and referred to the ECJ by the Scottish Court of Session.  Prior to the negotiations, May stated that the British Government would not seek a lasting membership of the internal market, that it would end ECJ jurisprudence, that it would seek a new trade agreement, that it would end the free movement of people and that it would maintain the common travel space with Ireland.  The EU adopted its negotiating guidelines in May and appointed Michael Barnier as chief negotiator.  The EU wanted to conduct the negotiations in two phases: first, the UK would accept a financial commitment and lifetime benefits for EU citizens in the UK, and then negotiations on future relations could begin.  In the first phase, Member States asked the United Kingdom to pay a divorce bill that was initially estimated at $52 billion.  EU negotiators said an agreement must be reached between the UK and the EU by October 2018.  At the end of the discussions, the EU stated in a very clear statement that the withdrawal agreement was a legal obligation, adding that “neither the EU nor the UK can modify, modify, interpret, and do not apply it unilaterally. The agreement covers issues such as money, citizens` rights, border agreements and dispute resolution.
It also includes a transition period and an overview of the future relationship between the UK and the EU. It was published on 14 November 2018 and was the result of the Brexit negotiations. The agreement was approved by the heads of state and government of the other 27 EU countries and by the British government led by Prime Minister Theresa May, but it faced opposition from the British Parliament, which needed approval for ratification. The approval of the European Parliament would also have been necessary. On January 15, 2019, the House of Commons rejected the withdrawal agreement by 432 votes to 202.  The House of Commons again rejected the agreement by 391 votes to 242 on 12 March 2019 and rejected it a third time, on 29 March 2019, by 344 votes to 286. On 22 October 2019, the revised withdrawal agreement negotiated by Boris Johnson`s government approved the first phase in Parliament, but Johnson halted the legislative process when the accelerated approval programme failed to receive the necessary support and announced his intention to declare a general election.  On 23 January 2020, Parliament ratified the agreement by adopting the withdrawal agreement; On 29 January 2020, the European Parliament approved the withdrawal agreement.