As mentioned above, the company has two options for the shareholders of the target company. They can either dump their shares on the open market for $125 $US at a premium of $25. The second possibility is that shareholders can exchange their shares in a 1:8 ratio. The term “stock exchange” is used in the rarest circumstances of an employee who wishes to exercise his stock options and convert them into shares. An employee who was a co-founder or former purchaser of a successful start-up might find that he or she has the opportunity to buy a lot of shares, but that the money needed to buy these shares is prohibitive. Under these conditions, the employee can use the value of the shares already held to pay for the new shares. Instead of selling these shares to raise the money to exercise the option, the worker simply exchanges the shares to pay for the exercise of many more shares. Currently, the DL rules only allow companies operating in sectors subject to the automatic procedure to issue shares to persons established outside India without prior government approval. Share exchange transactions involving companies operating in sectors operating under the authorization line still need to be pre-approved by the government. From an exit point of view, share swets have become, in accordance with ODI rules, authorized sources of financing for foreign joint ventures and 100% subsidiaries of companies established in India.
Although the amendments are somewhat ambiguous, it appears that the government has only partially liberalized the share exchange system, given that the 2015 easing focused exclusively on primary share exchange transactions. Therefore, secondary share exchange transactions (i.e. share swets that involve only the transfer of existing shares between the purchaser and the seller) still need to be agreed by the government. Consider the acquisition of a large IT company ABC. It has a significant market share in the United States, but is not sufficiently present in European markets. The company is looking for inorganic growth and plans to buy XYZ, which has a good presence in European markets. ABC can use its huge cash reserves to acquire XYZ or enter into a share exchange agreement by offering a deal to its shareholders on the open market. Before the swap, each party must accurately evaluate its business so that a fair “swap” can be calculated. The valuation of a business is usually complex; In addition to fair value, investment value and own value should be determined. Share swets can also take place internally within a company. Starbucks has used this strategy in the past.
When the stock options they offered their employees fell so low that they became virtually worthless, Starbucks offered a swap option. The company allowed employees to exchange their worthless shares for more, which were of higher value.     Share swets may constitute the entire consideration paid in a wholesale funds agreement; they may be part of a merger agreement with a cash payment to the shareholders of the target company, or they can be calculated for both Denacquirer and the purpose of a newly created business. In the event of mergers and acquisitions, a company pays for the acquisition of the target company on the open market by issuing its shares to the shareholders of the target company. For creditworthy companies, equity trading can be a hostile acquisition mechanism for targeted companies, which are attractive because of their expected profitability and growth prospects, but their management is not interested in expanding the business. The shareholders of these companies will be more than willing to sell their shares to the buying company on the open market.